Outliers As is seen in the result tables the outliers have been circled which were then excluded when calculating the averages for it could completely change the course of the results for if they were to be used as valid results whilst calculating the average it would transform what the real results were originally presenting.
Add the lipase to the test tube and start the stopwatch. The information nerve impulses are carried on the afferent and efferent pathways .
H An enzyme can also denature upon extreme pHs. Such outliers occurred due to infinite factors, however there were factors of which were attempted at being controlled as is mentioned in Page 1. Somatic and autonomic nervous systems ensure the body temperature and pH are kept at a stable level.
The data suggest that a weak antioxidant defense system in the heart is responsible for the relatively high degree of oxidative damage in copper-deficient hearts. Title Weak antioxidant defenses make the heart a target for damage in copper-deficient rats. This assists in justifying the findings gathered within the class room.
For more on anti-oxidants and anti-oxidant enzymes, see my essay General Anti-Oxidant Actions. Each enzyme is very specific as to what reaction it catalysts.
In fact, lower absorption in the alpha-band region of cytochrome aa3 was found for copper-deficient rat heart mitochondria. Figure 4 courtesy of: The results gathered were concurrent of the predicted outcome. In addition to enzymes, the animal cell uses many other chemicals to protect against oxygen free-radicals.
Clinically, damage to brain and muscle tissue are the first symptoms of mitochondrial disease. Finally, I predicted that once the optimum was exceeded, the rates would begin to decrease as they cannot function at such temperatures due to the breaking in the peptide bonds that holds the amino acids together.
However wash it off as quickly as possible. In vitro 25 OH D-1 alpha-hydroxylase activity was impaired in renal mitochondria from copper-intoxicated animals. The results acquired in class were placed in a graph graph 2this diagram closely resembles the one designed for all enzymes graph 1. Furthermore, by repeating the outliers again to get a new set of results it would provide for a more accurate average.
Addition of an Inhibitor Factor 5: Each hypothesis was proved by the informations that is provided in the Analysis: Associating to the active sites in footings of the rate of the reaction, when the substrate concentration is low, this means that there are less active sites being occupied and this besides means that the rate of alteration is besides low.
Sensory receptors emit nerve impulses in order for the organism to detect changes in the internal environment . Change in temperature, when the temperature was either higher or lower than the optimum temperature, the rate of alteration would diminish.
When the temperature was higher than the optimum temperature, this was due to the denaturing of the solution. There were many mistakes that were found throughout the lab ; nevertheless these specific beginnings of mistakes are the 1s that were beginnings of mistakes instead than human mistakes.
Fresh liver samples were obtained at the time of liver transplantation from 3 patients with Wilson's disease, 8 with cholestatic liver disease, and 5 with noncholestatic liver disease and from 8 control livers. This is something that was not done due to the lack of time Reproducibility is one of the main principles of the scientific method, and refers to the ability of a test or experiment to be accurately reproduced, or replicated, by someone else working independently.
Furthermore it seems as if that his rates seem to be considerably higher than that of mine. Source J Am Coll Nutr, 18 1: The only way to resolve this problem would be to repeat the anomalies in order to attain figures which support the other figures better.
Secondly it was decided upon that we would not stir the contents for two reasons: A comparison of the heart mitochondria in rats 4-year lifespan and pigeons year lifespan showed that pigeon mitochondria leak fewer free-radicals than rat mitochondria, despite the fact that both animals have similar metabolic rate and cardiac output.
Insects lack glutathione peroxidase, but experiments have been performed on fruit flies made transgenic by having extra genes for SOD, CAT or both. What we can do however is improve the reproducibility and reliability of our results by repeating the test multiple times.
Mentioning to Figure 4: If the gene has even the slightest of disorder within its sequence it could lead to an inaccurate order of amino acids and so a faulty protein or in our case faulty enzymes. Besides, at a low enzyme concentration, there is a great sum of active sites and the rate of the reaction is low.
For this peculiar lab, understanding the factors that affect the rate of enzyme activity, there are other ways that can find the consequence of these factors. The data gathered at the conclusion of the experiment proved that hydrogen peroxide mixed with liver at 37 degrees Celsius produced the best reaction rate out of all other temperatures.
Livers were analyzed for copper content. Disorders of copper-containing enzymes, including cytochrome oxidase, caeruloplasmin and monoamine oxidase, may have been responsible for the mitochondrial abnormalities. - The Effect of Substrate Concentration on the Rate of Activity of the Enzyme Catalase Background Information: Enzymes are biological catalysts that increase the speed of chemical reactions without undergoing any physical change.
Biology Lab: Catalase (Enzymes) Abstract In this laboratory exercise, studies of enzyme catalase, which accelerates the breakdown of hydrogen peroxide into water and oxygen. Enzymes: Lab Report Essay Words | 11 Pages.
The Effect of Substrate Concentration on the Rate of Activity of the Enzyme Catalase Background Information. Background: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA), anti-citrullinated protein/peptide antibodies (ACPAs) are responsible for disease onset and progression, however, our knowledge is limited on ligand binding affinities of autoantibodies with different citrulline-peptide specificity.
[D-penicillamine: mechanism of cellular action and induced autoimmune diseases]. [Article in French] Meyer O The fall in the IgM rheumatoid factors under treatment is not sufficient to explain the effectiveness of D-penicillamine in rheumatoid arthritis.
Free College Essay The Effect of Substrate Concentration on the Activity of the Enzyme Catalase. The Effect Of Substrate Concentration On The Activity Of The Enzyme Catalase A Level Biology Project Aims This is an /5(1).
Before understanding those concepts, it's crucial to understand the background information of the molecules involved with this lab. In order to have a larger perception of the lab and a better understanding of why it was done, one must interpret the general functions of enzymes and catalase.Background information on enzymes and catalase biology essay